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Date/Time Functions In MySQL
Get a crash course in MySQL's date and time functions.

| Breaking It Down |

What if you need to drill down even further, to the specific components that make up a date or time value? Well, MySQL comes with an entire family of functions designed to extract each component of a timestamp separately.

The YEAR() function returns the year component of a date value,


mysql> SELECT YEAR(NOW());
+-------------+
| YEAR(NOW()) |
+-------------+
|        2004 |
+-------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


while the MONTH() function returns the month component.


mysql> SELECT MONTH(NOW());
+--------------+
| MONTH(NOW()) |
+--------------+
|            1 |
+--------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


The day of the month can be obtained via the DAYOFMONTH() function,


mysql> SELECT DAYOFMONTH(NOW());
+-------------------+
| DAYOFMONTH(NOW()) |
+-------------------+
|                18 |
+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


The hour component of a time value can be extracted with the HOUR() function,


mysql> SELECT HOUR(NOW());
+-------------+
| HOUR(NOW()) |
+-------------+
|          12 |
+-------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


while the MINUTE() and SECOND() functions can be used to extract the minute and second components respectively:


mysql> SELECT MINUTE(NOW());
+---------------+
| MINUTE(NOW()) |
+---------------+
|            52 |
+---------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT SECOND(NOW());
+---------------+
| SECOND(NOW()) |
+---------------+
|            41 |
+---------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


You can use the DAYNAME() function to obtain the current day of the week, as shown below:


mysql> SELECT DAYNAME(NOW());
+----------------+
| DAYNAME(NOW()) |
+----------------+
| Sunday         |
+----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


This function will also work with any date that you pass it - look at the next example, which returns the day of the week corresponding to the date July 4 1776:


mysql> SELECT DAYNAME("1776-07-04");
+-----------------------+
| DAYNAME("1776-07-04") |
+-----------------------+
| Thursday              |
+-----------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


Similarly, there's also a MONTHNAME() function,


mysql> SELECT MONTHNAME("1776-07-04");
+-------------------------+
| MONTHNAME("1776-07-04") |
+-------------------------+
| July                    |
+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


and a DAYOFYEAR() function, which returns the day number corresponding to the specified date:


mysql> SELECT DAYOFYEAR("1977-07-18");
+-------------------------+
| DAYOFYEAR("1977-07-18") |
+-------------------------+
|                     199 |
+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


The QUARTER() function returns a number between 1 and 4 to indicate which quarter the specified date belongs to:


mysql> SELECT QUARTER("1993-05-12");
+-----------------------+
| QUARTER("1993-05-12") |
+-----------------------+
|                     2 |
+-----------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


Note that this is a calendar quarter, not a financial quarter, so if you use this to generate financial reports, you might need to tweak it a little.


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