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Getting More Out Of Apache (part 2)
Learn about Apache's authentication, logging and URL rewriting capabilities.

| Grouping Things Together |

In addition to user-level access, Apache also allows you to create different groups of individual users, and restrict access to protected resources based on group membership. For example, let's assume that I have two groups, "accounts" and "admin", and I would like to restrict access to a directory only to members of the "accounts" group.

The first thing to do is change the ".htaccess" file in the directory to read

AuthType Basic
AuthName "Top-Secret Information"
AuthUserFile /usr/local/apache/auth/mfre/users
AuthGroupFile /usr/local/apache/auth/mfre/groups
require group accounts

Next, you need to create the group memberships file, as specified in the AuthGroupFile directive above. This file is extremely simple - here's what it looks like:

AuthType Basic
AuthName "Top-Secret Information"
AuthUserFile /usr/local/apache/auth/mfre/users
require valid-user

Translation: users "joe" and "beth" are members of the group "accounts", while "bill" and "harry" are members of the group "admin".

Now, when you navigate back to the protected directory in your Web browser, Apache will again ask you for authorization; however, only members of the group "accounts" will be permitted to view the contents of the directory.

Finally, you can allow or deny access based on host names - the following lines would deny access to the protected resource for all requests from domains other than "melonfire.com"

order deny,allow
deny from all
allow from melonfire.com

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