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Speaking SQL (part 2)
Use SELECT queries, joins, sub-queries and built-in SQL functions to focus in on the data you need.

| Christmas Presents |

Throughout this article, I'll be using the database I developed last time to better illustrate the various examples. Just to refresh your memory, here's what it looked like:


# members table
+-----------+-------+---------+---------+--------------------------+
| member_id | fname | lname   | tel     | email                    |
+-----------+-------+---------+---------+--------------------------+
|         1 | John  | Doe     | 1234567 | jdoe@somewhere.com       |
|         2 | Jane  | Doe     | 8373728 | jane@site.com            |
|         3 | Steve | Klingon | 7449373 | steve@alien-race.com     |
|         4 | Santa | Claus   | 9999999 | santa@the-north-pole.com |
+-----------+-------+---------+---------+--------------------------+

# videos table
+----------+-------------------------------+------------------+
| video_id | title                         | director         |
+----------+-------------------------------+------------------+
|        1 | Star Wars: The Phantom Menace | George Lucas     |
|        2 | ET                            | Steven Spielberg |
|        3 | Charlie's Angels              | McG              |
|        4 | Any Given Sunday              | Oliver Stone     |
|        5 | Hollow Man                    | Paul Verhoeven   |
|        6 | Woman On Top                  | Fina Torres      |
+----------+-------------------------------+------------------+

# status table
+-----------+----------+
| member_id | video_id |
+-----------+----------+
|         2 |        6 |
|         4 |        2 |
|         1 |        1 |
|         1 |        2 |
|         1 |        3 |
+-----------+----------+


The simplest form of the SELECT query is the "catch-all" query, which returns all the records in a specific table. It looks like this:


mysql> SELECT * FROM members;
+-----------+-------+---------+---------+----------------------------+
| member_id | fname | lname   | tel     | email                      |
+-----------+-------+---------+---------+----------------------------+
|         1 | John  | Doe     | 1234567 | jdoe@somewhere.com         |
|         2 | Jane  | Doe     | 8373728 | jane@site.com              |
|         3 | Steve | Klingon | 7449373 | steve@alien-race.com       |
|         4 | Santa | Claus   | 9999999 | santa@the-north-pole.com | |
+-----------+-------+---------+---------+----------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)


The asterisk (*) indicates that you'd like to see all the columns present in the table. If, instead, you'd prefer to see one or two specific columns only in the result set, you can specify the column name(s) in the SELECT statement, like this:


mysql> SELECT lname FROM members;
+---------+
| lname   |
+---------+
| Doe     |
| Doe     |
| Klingon |
| Claus   |
+---------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)


You can eliminate duplicate entries using the DISTINCT keyword - the following query will not display members with the last name "Doe" more than once.


mysql> SELECT DISTINCT lname FROM members;
+---------+
| lname   |
+---------+
| Doe     |
| Klingon |
| Claus   |
+---------+
3 rows in set (0.05 sec)



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How to do Everything with PHP & MySQL, the best-selling book by Melonfire, explains how to take full advantage of PHP's built-in support for MySQL and link the results of database queries to Web pages. You'll get full details on PHP programming and MySQL database development, and then you'll learn to use these two cutting-edge technologies together. Easy-to-follow sample applications include a PHP online shopping cart, a MySQL order tracking system, and a PHP/MySQL news publishing system.

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